By Hammad M. Cheema, Reza Mahmoudi, Arthur H.M. van Roermund
The promising excessive info expense instant functions at millimeter wave frequencies as a rule and 60 GHz particularly have won a lot cognizance lately. in spite of the fact that, demanding situations concerning circuit, format and measurements in the course of mm-wave CMOS IC layout need to be conquer earlier than they could turn into conceivable for mass market.60-GHz CMOS Phase-Locked Loops targeting phase-locked loops for 60 GHz instant transceivers elaborates those demanding situations and proposes strategies for them. The approach point layout to circuit point implementation of the full PLL, in addition to separate implementations of person parts comparable to voltage managed oscillators, injection locked frequency dividers and their mixtures, are incorporated. in addition, to meet a couple of transceiver topologies concurrently, flexibility is brought within the PLL structure through the use of new dual-mode ILFDs and switchable VCOs, whereas reusing the low frequency parts on the similar time.
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Additional resources for 60-GHz CMOS Phase-Locked Loops
14, the in-band phase noise is dominated by all synthesizer components other than VCO and the out-of-band phase noise follows the VCO phase noise curve. 3. To estimate phase noise performance of the synthesizer in ADS, typical noise contributions of individual components are used. 15 shows the overall synthesizer phase noise as well as contributions from individual components such as VCO, PFD and CP. The noise of feedback divider and loop filter are not dominant, therefore omitted for clarity. The loop bandwidth of 4 MHz forms the “knee” in the phase noise curve.
1 Layout Problems and Solutions a 47 b Me-6 to Me-4 contacts Me-4 to substrate contacts Me-1 Me-1 c Fig. 10 Construction of meshed ground; metals and contacts (a), basic ground block (b), and a meshed ground plane (c) l DC power supplies also contribute noise in an integrated circuit and can cause supply “bounce” due to voltage transitions and the associated current variation from the supply (dI/dt). As a synthesizer consists of purely analog circuits such as a VCO as well as digital components such as a PFD, using a common supply voltage for digital and analog can deteriorate the phase noise performance of the synthesizer.
These simulations provide a first insight into the overall system operation and the interaction of different components with each other. Agilent’s Advanced Design System (ADS) provides an adequate tool-box for PLL related simulations. The loop’s AC response to extract stability information like phase margin, dynamic behavior to obtain settling time, and noise performance are all possible using this tool. A basic simulation environment is depicted in Fig. 11. The LPF block is custom-made based on the second order loop filter equations.