By Mary N. Arai (auth.)

Scyphozoa have attracted the eye of many sorts of individuals. Naturalists watch their swish locomotion. Fishermen may possibly dread the swarms that may hinder fishing or devour larval fish. Bathers retreat from the water in the event that they are stung. humans from a few Asiatic nations devour the medusae. Comparative physiologists learn them as most likely uncomplicated types for the functioning of assorted structures. This ebook integrates info from these and different investigations right into a practical biology of scyphozoa. it is going to emphasize the wide variety of adaptive responses attainable in those morphologically fairly easy animals. The publication will be aware of the examine of the final 35 years, partially simply because there was a quick enlargement of information in the course of that interval, and partially simply because a lot of the former paintings was once summarized through books released among 1961 and 1970. Bibliographies of papers on scyphozoa have been incorporated in Mayer (1910) and Kramp (1961). Taxonomic diagnoses also are incorporated in these monographs, in addition to in a monograph at the scyphomedusae of the USSR released by means of Naumov (Naumov, 1961). such a lot impor­ tantly, a genenttion of scyphozoan employees has used as its 'bible' the monograph through F.S.Russell (1970) The Medusae of the British Isles. despite its restrictive identify, his booklet reports lots of the info at the biology of scyphozoa as much as that date.

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A few coronate species possess more complex ocelli. Lenses have been observed in Nausithoe punctata (see Hertwig and Hertwig, 1878). 7). However P. ransom' does not possess ocelli (Russell, 1956). These coronate ocelli have not been investigated further. Although pigmented cells are often associated with photoreception, clear proof of photoreception requires electrical recording of cellular responses to light. In other phyla pigmented cells may not be sensory, and the pigment may not be a photochemical, acting instead as a light barrier shielding the actual sensory cells.

5. The more complex integrated behaviour of locomotion will be covered in the present section. 1 Physical dynamics of swimming A few medusae move by peristalsis. One example is the deep-water semaeostome medusa Deepstaria reticulum. This medusa has a voluminous thin-walled umbrella with a coronal muscle near the bell margin and a diffuse muscle extending over much of the subumbrella (Larson, Madin and Harbison, 1988). 10). 1). However, swimming of most scyphomedusae depends on contraction of the coronal (and if present the radial) muscles to produce a jet of water, and the elastic recoil of the mesoglea to restore the resting shape.

By Muscle 21 analogy with sea anemones, one function of the mesoglea is probably to resist stretch of the column wall. Tentacles of scyphistomae are supported by a solid core of cells. The tentacles of medusae may be solid or hollow. Even the hollow tentacles need little mesoglea to resist stretch because of their small radius. ) On the contrary, in the fishing tentacles of Chrysaora quinquecirrha medusae, the mesogleal layer must be highly flexible to support folding of the ectodermal muscle as it shortens the tentacle to less than a thirtieth of its extended length.

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