By Kevin M. Doak

This magisterial heritage of jap nationalism finds nationalism to be a contested and pluralistic perform that seeks to heart the folk in political lifestyles. It provides a wealth of basic resource fabric on how eastern themselves have understood their nationwide identification.

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Extra info for A History of Nationalism in Modern Japan: Placing the People (Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 5 Japan)

Example text

Nationalism, then, is both cause and effect of this conception of a collective group of people as a nation. It both shapes them into a nation, and represents the effects of thoughts and actions taken on behalf of that nation. At the same time, nationalism is an ideological effort to erase the gap between the historical emergence of the nation (which may precede or postdate the state) and the political structures that claim to speak and act in the name of the nation. Consequently, any effort to assert when nationalism arises in relation to the emergence of a state is not only a matter for historical debate but also represents evaluative differences over what a nation or state truly is.

Throughout the theoretical literature, and especially the theoretical literature that shaped the Japanese discourse on nationalism, there was a consistent emphasis on the difference between the state (kokka) and the nation (kokumin, minzoku). This awareness that the state is not the nation was shared broadly by liberals, Marxists and ultra-conservatives. When counter-arguments were raised, such as during World War II, it was to displace this discourse of conflict between nation and state and to suggest the successful completion of Japan’s quest for a modern nation-state (kokumin kokka).

52 Lawrence Olson, Ambivalent Moderns: Portraits of Japanese Cultural Identity (Savage, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1992), 105-7. H. Carr, F. Hertz, E. Kedourie) to argue that nationalism is one side of a general cultural fulcrum that shifts between universalism and particularism, and the particularism of nationalism stemmed from a specific historical moment that sought to replace God as a signifier of universal morals. ”53 In essence, Hashikawa made a distinction between a universal love of homeland and modern nationalism which seeks to effect a nation-state (kokumin-kokka).

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