By Tara Chand and Ravi Prakash
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Extra resources for Advanced Education Psychology
In the present stage of science a neurological explanation of behaviour is impossible. However, this fact in no way implies that a scientific psychology of learning cannot be established separate from any neurological theory. 78 Nonphenomenological Psychology Statements about mental events, like neurological statements, also are theoretical. Thus, Skinner belittles attempts of psychologists to infer what a physical situation means to an organism or to distinguish between the physical world and the psychological world of experience.
Since intermittent reinforcement generates longer extinction curves than does continuous reinforcement, there is no simple relation between the number of reinforcements and the number of unreinforced responses necessary for extinction. HOW MAY OPERANT CONDITIONING BE APPLIED TO SCHOOLROOM PRACTICES? Skinner is convinced that operant conditioning, so fruitful when applied to animal training, promises equal success when used in schools. He feels that the most efficient control of human learning requires instrumental aid.
The experimenter, keeping his eye on the scale, quickly opens the food tray whenever the bird's head rises above the established line. "we observe an immediate change in the frequency with which the head crosses the line. We also observe, and this is of some importance theoretically, that higher lines are now being crossed. We may advance almost immediately to a higher line in determining when food is to be presented. " By training two pigeons separately to do their parts in a total performance, Skinner has constructed a social scene within which competition is exemplified by two pigeons playing a modified game of ping-pong.