By Psang Dain Lin (auth.)

This ebook computes the 1st- and second-order by-product matrices of skew ray and optical direction size, whereas additionally offering an enormous mathematical software for computerized optical layout. This publication includes 3 elements. half One reports the fundamental theories of skew-ray tracing, paraxial optics and first aberrations – crucial interpreting that lays the basis for the modeling paintings offered within the remainder of this publication. half derives the Jacobian matrices of a ray and its optical course size. even supposing this factor is additionally addressed in different guides, they often fail to contemplate all the variables of a non-axially symmetrical procedure. The modeling paintings hence presents an improved framework for the research and layout of non-axially symmetrical platforms comparable to prisms and head-up monitors. finally, half 3 proposes a computational scheme for deriving the Hessian matrices of a ray and its optical course size, providing a good technique of choosing a suitable seek course while tuning the method variables within the process layout process.

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Extra resources for Advanced Geometrical Optics

Sample text

The points located at bi ¼ Æp=2 on a spherical boundary surface are pseudo-singular points (or irregular points), at which @ iri =@bi and @ iri =@ai are not linearly independent. As a result, the cross product @ iri =@bi  @ iri =@ai cannot be performed. To avoid this problem, an assumption is made throughout this book that the yi axis of the spherical boundary surface always coincides with the optical axis of the system. , 0 hi 90 ) must first be known. , Chi ¼ ‘iÀ1 Á ni  (Figs. 6). For every incidence point, there exist two possible unit normal vectors, and thus for each particular application, it is necessary to choose the correct one (referred to hereafter as the active unit normal vector,  ni ).

The function atan2 returns the arctangent in the range of Àp to p. However, it is usually necessary to add 2p to the solution in order to solve a variable in its required domain. 43) show that the three position pose variables tix , tiy and tiz can be extracted directly from the (1, 4)  g. 9 atan2ð1; 1Þ ¼ atan2ð3; 3Þ ¼ 45 , atan2ðÀ1; À1Þ ¼ atan2ðÀ3; À3Þ ¼ À135 . atan2ðÀ1; 1Þ ¼ atan2ðÀ3; 3Þ ¼ À45 , atan2ð1; À1Þ ¼ atan2ð3; À3Þ ¼ 135 . It is noted from this example that when g ¼ atan2ðy, xÞ, it does not indicate Cg ¼ x and Sg ¼ y.

Elservier Inc Chapter 2 Skew-Ray Tracing of Geometrical Optics In geometrical optics (or ray optics), light propagation is described in terms of “rays”, where each ray is regarded as an idealized narrow bundle of light with zero width [1]. This is different from beam, which is a concept used in almost all fields of physics. Geometrical optics provides equations for predicting the paths followed by the rays through an optical system. These equations are somewhat simplistic, and cannot therefore accurately describe such effects as diffraction and polarization.

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