By T.J. Mason

This can be the 5th quantity of Advances in Sonochemistry the 1st having been released in 1990. The definition of sonochemistry has built to incorporate not just the ways that ultrsound has been harnessed to impression chemistry but additionally its makes use of in fabric processing. matters incorporated variety from chemical dosimetry to ultrasound in microbiology to ultrasound within the extraction of plant fabrics and in leather-based know-how.

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30 THIERRY LEPOINT and FRAN(~OISE LEPOINT-MULLIE Figure 18. Formation of a jet inside a vapor bubble (in glycerin) forced by the vibration of a plane (frequency: 60 Hz; bubble size: ~2 mm). (After Coleman et al. [72]; reproduced with the permission of L. A. ) When several bubbles are close to one another, the situation becomes more complex. The interactions between two (laser-generated) bubbles were made by Jungnickel and Vogel [76] (Figure 23). Theoretical investigations were recently undertaken by Oguz [77], who reported extreme versatility in the behavior of two bubbles close together and oscillating in an acoustic field of 20 kHz.

Four different regimes can be identified as the acoustic pressure increases [22]. In the dancing regime, the bubble performs small translational amplitude oscillations. For a further increase in the intensity, the bubble develops surface instability and emits small debris which dissolves or is taken up by the main bubble. This is the so-called "shuttlecock" regime, during which a bubble can be maintained for days in spite of its "uncoordinated" movements. In the case of an air bubble in demineralized water, the present authors working with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) able to detect 3 x 10-11 lm did not record any SL signal associated with the shuttlecock regime [ 107].

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