By N B Davies; J R Krebs; Stuart A West
Average choice, ecology and behavior -- trying out hypotheses in behavioural ecology -- financial judgements and the person -- Predators as opposed to prey: evolutionary fingers races -- Competing for assets -- dwelling in teams -- Sexual choice, sperm pageant and sexual clash -- Parental care and kinfolk conflicts -- Mating structures -- intercourse allocation -- Social behaviours: altruism to spite -- Cooperation -- Altruism and clash within the social bugs -- conversation and signs -- end
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Extra info for An introduction to behavioural ecology
What are the independent data? Summary These criticisms are important, but they certainly do not mean that the comparative method is a failure. On the contrary, the approach is impressive in the way it brings together such a wide diversity of behavioural and morphological traits within the same ecological framework. Crook’s study of the weaver birds and Jarman’s work on the antelopes have served as models for ecological work on other groups of species. However, the most recent comparative studies have attempted to control for these various problems, and we will now discuss other examples, bearing the criticisms in mind, to illustrate how changes in methodology have made comparison between species a more rigorous exercise.
In Wytham Woods, UK, the great tits respond as in (a), with no significant variation between females in plasticity and a strong average population response to temperature (solid line). In the Hoge Veluwe, The Netherlands, the great tits respond as in (b), with no significant average population response (solid line) but significant variation in individual female plasticity. After Charmantier et al. (2008). Reprinted with permission from AAAS. emergence of oak leaves (Quercus robur) and of winter moth caterpillars (Operophtera brumata), which feed on the oak leaves and are a key food for nestling tits.
B) The weight of a nestling at fledging determines its chances of survival; heavier chicks survive better. From Perrins (1965). Two hypotheses for the mismatch between observed and predicted … …. indd 14 optimum to maximize the number of surviving young per brood from a selfish individual’s point of view (Fig. 5b, curve). The most commonly observed clutch size is close to the predicted optimum but slightly lower. Why is this? One hypothesis is that the optimum in Fig. 5b (curve) is the one which maximizes the number of surviving young per brood whereas, at least in stable populations, we would expect natural selection to design animals to maximize their lifetime reproductive output.