By Michel Soustelle

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16] that the fractional extent represents the portion of the reference reactant that has reacted if its stoichiometric coefficient is one (which can often be chosen). Hence the name “fractional conversion” is sometimes used to refer to the fractional extent of a reaction. 2. Closed reactors with respect to one or more reactants of the reaction If the reactor is closed or partially closed with respect to one or more components, the stoichiometrically least abundant component will be chosen. 15] in order to calculate the quantities of different species lost or produced when the system is closed to the fractional extent .

1. Definition A chain reaction is a reaction in which a small number of elementary steps are repeated a large number of times following each other through a small number of intermediate species that are constantly formed and destroyed. 2. R2b] in hydrogen bromide synthesis). By extension, a simple linear reaction consisting of a large number of steps very close to each other is also called a chain reaction. 5) are also considered to be chain Reaction Mechanisms and Elementary Steps 35 reactions.

2. Examples of mechanisms There are several types of mechanisms: unique sequence mechanisms, chain mechanisms and catalytic mechanisms. While some are specific to a single reaction, others are applicable to a family of reactions. We will give examples of these various types and some will serve as the guiding concept in order to present the different modes of treatment. We will give more information on mechanisms and details about the kinds of elementary reactions in Chapter 9. 1. R2d] It should be noted that the last step is the opposite reaction of the first step.

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