By Dougal Drysdale(auth.)

Content material:
Chapter 1 hearth technological know-how and Combustion (pages 1–34):
Chapter 2 warmth move (pages 35–82):
Chapter three Limits of Flammability and Premixed Flames (pages 83–119):
Chapter four Diffusion Flames and fireplace Plumes (pages 121–179):
Chapter five regular Burning of drinks and Solids (pages 181–223):
Chapter 6 Ignition: The Initiation of Flaming Combustion (pages 225–275):
Chapter 7 unfold of Flame (pages 277–315):
Chapter eight Spontaneous Ignition inside Solids and Smouldering Combustion (pages 317–348):
Chapter nine The Pre?Flashover Compartment hearth (pages 349–386):
Chapter 10 The Post?Flashover Compartment hearth (pages 387–439):
Chapter eleven Smoke: Its Formation, Composition and circulation (pages 441–474):

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Sample text

Given that these factors operate in opposite directions and that in most fires the yield of CO2 is invariably much higher than that of CO, the resulting error is unlikely to be more than 5%. ) and the yields of carbon dioxide and water vapour. It is not appropriate to examine this any further in this context as the equations are presented in great detail elsewhere (Janssens, 1991b, 2008; Janssens and Parker, 1992). The question of uncertainty in the calculated heat release values obtained using the cone calorimeter is discussed by Enright and Fleischmann (1999).

Although oxygen consumption calorimetry is predominantly the method of choice, the rate of heat release can also be estimated from measurements of the rates of formation of carbon dioxide and of carbon monoxide. This has been called ‘carbon dioxide generation (CDG) calorimetry’ (Tewarson and Ogden, 1992). 13. 15, in which calculated values of Hc,CO2 and Hc,CO are quoted. 4 potentially more accurate,5 the uncertainty in the values of Hc,CO2 and Hc,CO makes OCC a more reliable method to use. Nevertheless, CDG calorimetry has its value as a method to check the OCC results, particularly if there are insufficient oxygen measurements.

13), assuming complete combustion to H2 O and CO2 . , carbon monoxide and soot particles are formed, the effect on the calculated rate of heat release will be small. Their reasoning rests on the fact that if all the carbon was converted to CO, the value used for the heat of combustion ( Hc,ox ) would be no more than 30% too high, while if it all appeared as carbon (smoke particles), it could be no more than 20–25% too low. Given that these factors operate in opposite directions and that in most fires the yield of CO2 is invariably much higher than that of CO, the resulting error is unlikely to be more than 5%.

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