By Jean Audouze, Sylvie Vauclair (auth.)

TO NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS The Formation and the Evolution of subject within the Universe JEAN AUDOUZE lnstitut d'Astrophysique de Paris, France and SYLVIE VA UCLAI R DAPHE, Ohservatoire de Meudon, France and lnstitut d'Astrophysique, Paris D, REIDEL PUBLISHING corporation DORDRECHT: HOLLAND/BOSTON: U. S. A. LONDON: ENGLAND Library of Congre~ Cataloging in e-book facts Audouzc. Jean An creation to nuclear astrophysics. (Geophysics and astrophysics monographs; v. 18) En!. and up-to-date translation of L'Astrophysique nuclt\aire. comprises bibliographies and index. \. Nuclear astrophysics. I. Vauclair, Sylvie, joint writer. II. name. III. sequence. QB464. A9313 1979 523. 01'9'7 79-20752 ISBN-13: 978-90-277-1053-6 e-ISBN-13: 978-94-009-9477-5 DO I: 10. 1007/978-94-009-9477-5 released by means of D. Reidel Publishing corporation, P. O. field 17. Dordrecht, Holland offered and allotted within the U. S. A. , Canada, and Mexico by means of D. Reidel Publishing corporation, Inc. Lincoln development. one hundred sixty previous Derby road, Hingham, Mass. 02043, U. S. A. All Rights Reserved Copyright © 1980 by way of D. Reidel Publishing corporation, Dordrecht, Holland Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st variation 1980 No a part of the cloth safe through this copyright observe will be reproduced or used in any shape or in any respect, digital or mechanical, together with photocopying, recording or through any informational garage and retrieval procedure, with out written permission from the copyright proprietor desk OF CONTENTS IX FOREWORD creation xi XXI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS bankruptcy I / THE OBSERVATIONAL foundation OF NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS 1. 1. the significance of the 4 basic Interactions 1 1. 2.

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The lifetime of the star depends on it. e. the energy radiated per second) increases with m 3 • Massive stars are spendthrift compared to light ones! On the Main Sequence, the internal temperature adjusts itself so that the nuclear energy production equals exactly the energy losses; the H core is exhausted much quicker in more massive stars. In the same way, the phases of gravitational contraction are more rapid in more massive stars. 2). 7 solar masses can never have a central temperature high enough for C to burn.

In fact, the line profiles are broadened for three basic reasons. (1) The natural broadening of the line corresponds to the fact that the transitions between electronic orbits do not correspond to a single energy but to an interval Eo + I1Eo (where I1Eo is deduced from Heisenberg uncertainty principle from the lifetime of the levels). (2) The Doppler broadening comes from the thermal motion of the atomic species in the gas. Part of the atoms move towards the observer, and the corresponding radiation wavelength is then shorter while another part of the atoms (statistically) moves off (longer radiation wavelength).

W. B. • Philadelphia. Sciama. D. : 1975, Modern Cosmology, The Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ~ in Astronomy. New Frontiers in Astron· omy and The Solar System, W. H. , San Francisco. • If an object which radiates with a wavelength A moves with respect to the observer with a velocity v, the wavelength of the radiation is shifted by ai. _(c+V)112 T - c- v where c is the light velocity. i. ~ if v«c. 1. The Origin of the Universe It is now generally believed that our Universe originated some 1010 yr ago in a singular event which is referred to as the 'Big Bang'.

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