By William A. Hillix

Several books chronicle makes an attempt, such a lot of them over the last forty years, to coach animals to speak with humans in a human-designed language. those books have in most cases handled just one or species, or maybe one or a number of examine initiatives. we have now supplied a extra encompassing view of this box. We additionally are looking to strengthen what different authors, for instance Jane Goodall, Sue Savage-Rumbaugh, Penny Patterson, Birute Galdikas, and Roger and Deborah Fouts, so passionately express approximately our accountability for our closest animal relations.

This booklet surveys what used to be recognized, or believed approximately animal language all through historical past and prehistory, and summarizes present wisdom and the debate round it. The authors establish and try and settle lots of the difficulties in examining the animal behaviours which have been saw in stories of animal language skill.

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Extra info for Animal Bodies, Human Minds: Ape, Dolphin, and Parrot Language Skills

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Pepperberg stuck to vocal English. The Premacks and the Rumbaugh-Savage-Rumbaugh projects used plastic symbols and lexigrams, respectively, but English was also used in communicating to their chimpanzees and bonobos. The Foutses and the Patterson/Cohn team used both signs and English. With marine mammals, large-scale signs were used to communicate to the animals, and there has been essentially no communication from the animals. Thus there has, so far, been no general agreement either about the best method of communicating or about whether other methods must be excluded during training.

M. Herman, and P. E. Nachtigall, (Earlbaum, Hillsdale, NT, 1993), pp. 25-44. 23. M. F. Washburn, The animal mind (MacMillan, NY, 1908). 24. H. Davis and D. ). The inevitable bond (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992). CHAPTER THREE Language Research with Nonhuman Animals: Methods and Problems LANGUAGE EVOLVES If any new anatomic or behavioral characteristic is to evolve, it must provide a reproductive advantage to its possessor. Language cannot be an exception. Language is a method of communicating between individuals, so only species that live socially can benefit from language.

In addition, primates are likely to bite when frustrated, and many people who work with chimpanzees have one or more missing fingers. The Difficulties of Animal Language Research 31 Robert Noell, who with his wife raised many chimpanzees, lost two fingers on his right hand and had two fingers on the left severely damaged while working with chimpanzees. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh, the scientist who works most closely with Kanzi, has one short finger, although she is not one finger short (Kanzi did not do it).

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