By F. S. Bodenheimer (auth.)

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But instead of the epidemiological approach we may choose also a zoogeographical analysis. In that case climograms of high, medium and low abundance should be compared with regard to the common qualifications within each group. The aim of all such types of analysis is to be able always to •c " 28 ,, " 20 16 A 12 c. 12 50 "-0 60 HUMIDITY 70 W% ;o 10 70 60 HUMIDITY M"io ::Ncr;X VI '( ·c ll 25 28 "' VII d \ I 20 \. 2' " 20 10 16 ::I ;o B D. 50 60 HUMIDITY 70 80% 10 30 50 HUMIDITY 90%. Fig. 9. Climograms of Anychus latus: A t o C.

In the best case, we may be able to circumscribe an optimal, favourable, unfavourable, and impossible climatic zone. Whenever this zonation is based on sufficiently large empirical data it becomes highly important for the understanding of seasonal fluctuation, local gradation, and geographical distribution. We shall give a few illustrations. Fig. 9 shows regional climograms of the various citrusgrowing zones in Israel with regard to the Oriental Red Spider Anychus latus. The inner rectangle designat es the optimal zone, the outer rectangle (broken line) the limit of the favourable zone for this mite.

E. the inverse of the hyperbola). WADLEY concluded, however, that a very flattened S- (logistic) curve, almost straight in its long middle part, may fit better. Yet all curves with a more or less satisfactory empirical fit are rather complicated to calculate (true also of PRADHAN's 12 formula), and are beyond the reach of the average ecologist. None of them, apart from the hyperbola, give the ecologically important threshold of development, while the upper turning point in every case has to be ascertained experimentally.

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