By George V. Lauder (auth.), Graham K. Taylor, Michael S. Triantafyllou, Cameron Tropea (eds.)

The actual ideas of swimming and flying in animals are intriguingly diverse from these of ships and airplanes. The research of animal locomotion for that reason holds a distinct position not just on the frontiers of natural fluid dynamics study, but additionally within the utilized box of biomimetics, which goals to emulate salient facets of the functionality and serve as of dwelling organisms. for instance, fluid dynamic a lot are so major for swimming fish that they're anticipated to have constructed effective move keep an eye on strategies during the evolutionary technique of version by way of common choice, which would in flip be utilized to the layout of robot swimmers. And but, sharply contrasting perspectives as to the vigorous potency of oscillatory propulsion – particularly for marine animals – call for a cautious review of the forces and effort expended at reasonable Reynolds numbers. For this and plenty of different learn questions, an experimental method is usually the main applicable method. This holds as a lot for flying animals because it does for swimming ones, and comparable experimental demanding situations observe – learning tethered instead of loose locomotion, or learning the circulate round robot types in preference to genuine animals. This ebook offers a wide-ranging image of the state of the art in experimental study at the physics of swimming and flying animals. The ensuing photo displays not just upon the questions which are of curiosity in present natural and utilized study, but additionally upon the experimental suggestions which are to be had to reply to them.

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1999). Thunniform swimmers operate at a Reynolds number of 1,000 and up (Webb and Weihs 1986). , Triantafyllou et al. 1993; Sfakiotakis et al. 1999). These vortices influence swimming performance through their interactions with the tail. The nature of these vortex interactions depend on the foils kinematics and are not fully understood (Lentink et al. 2007). To better understand the vortex dynamics of thunniform swimmers, scientists often model the tail with a simple, non-flexible, pitching and heaving foil (Fig.

Recently we have made a much broader parametric study with our soap tunnel that will be published elsewhere. We assess the wake symmetry by making series of 99 triggered photos at a fixed flap phase. We then high-pass filter the individual images and subsequently calculate the average filtered image (Fig. 11) for four phases; 0°, 90°, 180° and 270°. If the vortex wake is symmetric, then the vortical fields must be anti-symmetric for 180°-out-ofphase triggered images (Fig. 11). We developed a simple procedure that enables a graphical check for wake symmetry: we add two 180°-out-of-phase locked images using different RGB channels.

When the effective angle of attack becomes small, an array of small vortices are generated along the foils path, similar to (but larger than) the wake shed by the non flapping foil at the same speed (Fig. 8). The vortex wake asymmetry is most likely due to non-linear near-vortex-wake interactions, as found by Williamson and Roshko (1988) for vibrating cylinders. How the vortex interactions in the wake and the interactions with the foil induce the wake asymmetry is largely unclear. In some cases the asymmetry is due to vortex merging or tearing (Lentink et al.

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