By J. Lindsay Whitton (auth.), J. Lindsay Whitton M.D., Ph.D. (eds.)
Antigen presentation is crucial to the immune reaction, andis instrumental in making sure that the reaction fastened is that most fitted to the eradication of the actual microbe confronted. during this quantity, specialists within the box supply state of the art descriptions of the antigen presentation pathways. How do viruses disrupt those serious pathways, and to what impression? Do all tissues current antigen within the comparable means? If no longer, why? What are the results of dysfunctional antigen presentation, noticeable in yes genetic problems? This e-book considers not just the molecular info, but in addition their relevance to the entire organism.
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These two viral products are not functionally redundant due to differences in their ability 34 Dipankar Nandi et al. to destroy different allelic forms ofMHC class I heavy chains (MACHOLD et al. 1997). A third human CMV gene product, US3, inhibits the maturation and egress of MHC class I to the cell surface (AHN et al. 1996b; JONES et al. 1996). CMV also encodes a product, gp34, that complexes with folded MHC class I molecules and expresses them on the cell surface (KLEUNEN et al. 1997). In addition, human CMV also encodes an MHC-like class I heavy chain that is responsible for protecting human CMV-infected cells from lysis by NK cells (FARRELL et al.
1997). Interestingly, the transcription of Ki, a nuclear protein homologous to the PA28 subunits, is also increased by IFN-y (AHN et al. 1995; JIANG and MONACO 1997). However, the induction by IFN-y is transient and is tenfold less than that observed for the PA28 subunits in a hepatoma cell line (JIANG and MONACO 1997); moreover, protein levels do not necessarily correlate with mRNA levels in these cells. Thus the significance ofKi in the activation of proteasomes and its role in MHC class I antigen processing requires additional work.
Comber, S. Wenderfer, and 1. Monaco, unpublished observation) and hence is not clustered together with the TAP and LMP genes, which are in the class II region, telomeric of H-2K. Another apparent antigen-processing polymorphism affects the repertoire of peptides bound to certain HLA molecules without affecting cell surface MHC class I expression (PAZMANY et al. 1992; ROWLAND-JONES et aI. 1993). Although the gene responsible for this effect appears to be MHC linked, no coding changes are found in the MHC class I molecules in these cells and the phenotype does not correlate with any known TAP polymorphisms (PAZMANY et al.