By D. I. Edwards

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At intervals samples of the culture are removed to determine the numbers of viable cells and the logarithm of the survivors is plotted against time. 0 ~ u ~ u u.. u.. FIG (B) FIG (B) (a) (b) 1 . 0 r - - - -_ _ _ ~ u u.. 8 Isobolograms of drug interactions. (a) Synergism; (b) additivity; (c) antagonism. critical and the drugs are normally used in a 1: 1 ratio of their MICs (that is equal biological potency) or in an equimolar ratio, and it usual to use more than one concentration. The results are plotted for the control culture (where the drug is absent), for the two drugs singly and for the two drugs in combination.

Superficially it appears to be a StructUFal analogue of an aromatic amino acid, but its mechanism of action is not reversed by aromatic amino acids so a functional correlation does not exist, although a suggestion of structural analogy with uridine may be more valid. ) Synthesis of chloramphenicol occurs from p-nitroacetophenone and is a ninestage procedure. 3 summarises the main feature of the synthesis. 3 Synthesis of chloramphenicol from p-nitroacetophenone. 3 The Penici1lins and Cephalosporins All penicillins and cephalosporins contain the ~lactam ring which is essential for their antibacterial activity.

Typhimurium mutants to the wild type), it has been suggested that an approximately linear relationship may exist between the mutagenic activity (potency) of a chemical and its carcinogenic potency in animals. This clearly has enormous implications ifit is true, but at present it is somewhat controversial and has been criticised by Ashby and Styles (1978a) on the grounds that the experimental conditions of the assay vary so much between laboratories that the test gives both false positive and false negative results which have been documented.

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