By Gerd Kaupp

Making a transparent contrast is made among nano- and micro-mechanical checking out for actual purposes, this monograph describes the fundamentals and functions of the supermicroscopies AFM and SNOM, and of the nanomechanical trying out on tough and technical ordinary surfaces within the submicron variety all the way down to a lateral answer of some nm. New or stronger instrumentation, new actual legislation and unexpected new purposes in all branches of average sciences (around physics, chemistry, mineralogy, fabrics technology, biology and drugs) and nanotechnology are coated in addition to the resources for pitfalls and mistakes. It outlines the dealing with of usual and technical samples relating to these of flat commonplace samples and emphasizes new detailed good points. Pitfalls and assets of blunders are sincerely proven in addition to their effective therapy while going from molecularly flat to tough surfaces. the educational or business scientist learns tips to follow the rules for tackling their medical or production projects that come with roughness far-off from average samples.

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Additional resources for Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Nearfield Optical Microscopy and Nanoscratching: Application to Rough and Natural Surfaces

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Such conclusion is only possible if AFM evidence is combined with SNOM evidence. Molecular steps may also be formed upon chemical reaction if flat layers ensue. Thus, the reaction of the strong base benzimidazole-2-guanidine (including water layer) with carbon dioxide in dry air (Fig. 24) produces layers that exhibit terrace-like steps that are stable and more highly resolved than those in Fig. 19b (in moist air). 5 nm. Clearly, this is in the molecular range of the resulting benzimidazole-2-guanidinium carbonate or hydrogencarbonate [67].

AFM topology on (10–1) of tetraphenylethene after 10 min application of bromine vapor to give tetra-p-bromophenylethene and hydrogen bromide 0 2 4 6 µm Fig. 59. AFM topology on the main face of 5-benzylidene-thiohydantoin after exposure to 1 ml Cl2 from a syringe in 3 cm distance in air It is not always easy to differentiate the nonparallel heights and valleys type from the craters and volcanoes type (Sect. 3, Fig. 45). But the features in Fig. 60 tend more to the shape of this section. These were produced by huge surface changes in the phase transformation step of a gas–solid diazotization [97].

At that time the vaporization losses come to a stop, and after 1 h the smooth surface covers have increased (Fig. 29b). After that, the crystal is protected from further evaporative losses. It stays unchanged for days in air and does not smell intensely anymore. Again, no nanoliquid is on the surface, but this does not exclude a strongly adhered water layer. Clearly DABCO crystals protect themselves from losing weight in moist air by forming a nanoscopic protective hydrate cover [7]. This finding may be of practical importance for its handling.

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