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Extra resources for Baby Farm Animals (Happytime Baby Animals)

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Diagram of the major abdominal muscle groups (shown in cross section) of the crayfish (on the left) and hermit crab (on the right). The abdominal nerve cord is paired in the hermit crab but fused in the crayfish. Elements of each major muscle region are identified. , nerve cord. Central to these are deep extensor muscles, absent in the hermit crab, and deep flexor muscles, which have become reduced (Marrelli, 1975) and asymmetric in the hermit crab. The crayfish has six abdominal ganglia; the hermit crab has only five, because the first abdominal ganglion moves into the thorax at the end of the megalops stage.

CHAPPLE the functional importance of the various peripheral asymmetries. Second, the complexity of the ontogenetic processes makes it difficult to establish a symmetrical baseline of control, either between segments, left and right sides, or closely related species. Thus, in the cell map of identified neurons in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia (Frazier, Kupfermann, Coggeshall, Kandel, & Waziri, 1967), the numbered pairs, as the Frazier et al. are careful to emphasize, are not bilateral homologues.

Closer muscles respond to fast axon stimulation in the cutter with a twitch to a single stimulus, but paired stimuli are necessary for a twitch in the crusher (Govind & Lang, 1974). The asymmetry does not begin to develop until the animal is about 2 months old. Prior to this time both claws resemble the adult cutter, consisting primarily of fast muscle fibers, but after this time there is a progressive development of slow muscle fibers in the crusher (Goudey & Lang, 1974; Govind, Atwood, & Lang, 1974).

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