By David MacGregor
Exceptional, designated examine the similarities and transformations among American and British Clipper Ships that have been in provider within the 1850s; profusely illustrated with the authors personal, hugely distinctive plans and line drawings plus extra b w illustrations.
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Extra resources for British American Clippers: A Comparison of Their Design, Construction and Performance in the 1850s
As Rupert Herbert-Burns of Lloyd’s of London observes: The combination of the enormous scope, variety and “room for maneuver” oﬀered by the physical and geographical realities of the [earth’s] maritime environment . . presents a sobering and uncomfortable reality. . [W]hat compounds this reality further is that the commercial milieu that simultaneously aﬀords . . the ability to deploy, ﬁnance operations, tactical concealment, logistical ﬂuidity and wealth of targets of opportunity—the commercial maritime industry—is itself numerically vast, complex, deliberately opaque and in a perpetual state of ﬂux.
The following have been among the better known of these organizations: • PIRA, which has conspicuously exploited commercial shipping to avail the resupply of weaponry and other war-related materiel20 • Chechen rebels, who have carried out sporadic attacks against passenger ferries in the vicinity of the Bosporus Strait • Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya, which carried out strikes against passenger ships during the early to mid-1990s • Palestinian organizations, including Hamas, Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), PA, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine–General Command (PFLP-GC), the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP), and PLF.
S. law, because questions regarding the application of foreign liability rules to overseas attacks are extremely complicated and would likely vary depending on the legal framework of a speciﬁc nation targeted in an attack. S. targets on the high seas). That said, the methodological approach adopted here also serves to illustrate some of the basic legal concepts and liability problems that will likely arise in the context of attacks occurring elsewhere in the world. In the remainder of this book, we address risk and liability in connection with maritime terrorist attacks on or involving passenger and containerized shipping.