By Helmut G. Karge, Ekkehard Geidel (auth.), Hellmut G. Karge, Jens Weitkamp (eds.)

Molecular Sieves - technology and Technology covers, in a entire demeanour, the technology and expertise of zeolites and all comparable microporous and mesoporous fabrics. Authored by way of popular specialists, the contributions are grouped jointly topically in this sort of means that every quantity of the ebook sequence bargains with a selected sub-field. Volume 4 covers the characterization of molecular sieves with assistance from an important spectroscopic innovations (Characterization I), i.e. IR, Raman, NMR, EPR, UV-VIS Spectroscopy, X-ray absorption, photoelectron and Mössbauer Spectroscopy. thought, scan and alertness in chosen examples are discussed.

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Simultaneously, the band positions shift to lower wavenumbers, basically in agreement with the observations by Flanigen et al. (cf. [112, 114] and Fig. 12). Falabella et al. [250] included IR framework spectra in their report on structural and acidity properties of RE-Y (where RE=La, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy). Ballivet et al. [251] obtained IR spectra of La, Na-Y zeolites in the region of framework vibrations as well as in the OH stretching region (cf. Sect. 1) and used the spectral features in the range 1300–400 cm–1 in dependence on the activation temperature for structural and stability determinations.

Diffusions, reactions; cf. also Sects. 4). A great variety of cells appropriate for transmission IR spectroscopy on zeolites and related materials has been developed. Some of them are described in Refs. [151–159], among them also flow-through reactor cells suitable for in-situ investigations of diffusion and catalytic processes and low temperature adsorption [153–157]. Here, we reproduce just a scheme of one of them (Fig. 9, cf. [158, 159]), which has been successfully employed in many IR studies by a number of laboratories.

The characteristic four-ring opening mode was calculated for zeolite A at 428 cm–1 [119]. In principle, the resulting forms of ring-breathing normal modes in the region around 450 cm–1 can also be conceived as (even more localized) d(OTO) in-phase bending modes as discussed in the assignment scheme above. Different from the methods considered so far, van de Graaf et al. [64] and Smirnov and Bougeard [120] recently examined pore-opening vibrations of ring structures in zeolites by molecular dynamics simulations.

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