By Peter F. Orazem, Guilherme Sedlacek, Zafiris Tzannatos (eds.)

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Extra resources for Child Labor and Education in Latin America: An Economic Perspective

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The remaining measures include a series of dummy variables indicating progressively higher income quintiles and a dummy variable indicating rural residence. 5. For ease of interpretation, coefficients have been converted into derivatives of the probability of child labor with respect to the exogenous variables. Two specifications, including and excluding the income quintiles, are reported for each country. Except for Brazil, the income quintiles add significantly to the explanatory power of the regressions, so discussion will concentrate on the fuller specifications.

5 Girls are more likely to be promoted than boys, but even so, 30% or more of the girls are behind their age-appropriate grade level. A high proportion of children who are not working are behind grade level; children who are working while attending school are even further behind. With the exception of Ecuador, children who are only working are even further behind, so it appears that enrolled children who work are still making academic progress. However, that progress is markedly slower than that of children who do not work.

4 The implication is that as real per capita incomes have risen, countries have reduced child laborforce participation at a stable rate. 5 The convex shape of the relationship between income and child labor has another implication: that progressively larger increases in per capita income are necessary to lower child labor by another percentage point. As a consequence, the poorest countries can experience rapid reductions in child labor if they can raise their income levels. 2 percentage points for every $100 increase in per capita income.

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