By Edward Peters

During the 13th century, the common conviction that the Christian lands in Syria and Palestine have been of maximum value to Christendom, and that their loss was once a convinced signal of God's displeasure with Christian society, pervaded approximately all degrees of concept. but this comparable society confronted different crises: non secular dissent and unorthodox ideals have been proliferating in western Europe, and the powers exercised, or claimed, via the kings of Europe have been becoming rapidly.

The resources offered right here illustrate the emerging feedback of the altering campaign suggestion. They mirror a sharpened know-how between Europeans of themselves as a group of Christians and the sluggish beginnings of the secular tradition and political association of Europe.

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Additional info for Christian Society and the Crusades, 1198-1229: Sources in Translation, Including the Capture of Damietta by Oliver of Paderborn

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Account of the Sack (Nicetas) . . How shall I begin to tell of the deeds wrought by these nefarious men! Alas, the images, which ought to have been adored, were trodden under foot! Alas, the relics of the holy martyrs were thrown into unclean places! Then was seen what one shudders to hear, namely, the divine body and blood of Christ was spilled upon the ground or thrown about. They snatched the precious reliquaries, thrust into their bosoms the ornaments which these contained, and used the broken remnants for pans and drinking cups-precursors of Anti-christ, authors and heralds of his nefarious deeds which we momentarily expect.

Besides the references cited in the Introduction, see also S. Kuttner and A. Garcia y Garcia, "A New Eyewitness Account of the Fourth Lateran Council," Traditio 2 0 (1964), 115-178, and J. W. Baldwin, Masters, Princes, and Merchants: The Social Views of Peter the Chanter and His Circle (Princeton, 1970)~Vol. I, pp. 315343. D. 1215, a sacred and general synod was held in the month of November, in the church of the Holy Saviour at Rome, called Constantian, at which our lord pope Innocent, in the eighteenth year of his pontificate, presided, and which was attended by four hundred and twelve bishops.

The citizens then, trusting to the promises of the legate, and having no suspicions of treachery, after an THE ALBIGENSIAN CRUSADE 35 oath had been taken on both sides, on the above-named condition, gave permission to the legate and the prelates to enter the city without any others, and in company with them. But, as had been pre-arranged, as soon as the gates were open, the French treacherously, and in disgraceful disregard of the oath which had been made by the legate, forced their way into the city and made prisoners of the inhabitants, and having thus treacherously gained a victory they destroyed the towers and walls of this noble place.

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