By David Chinnery

This bookВ carefully info layout instruments and strategies for knowing low energy and effort potency in a hugely effective layout methodology.

Important themes comprise: - Microarchitectural options to minimize strength according to operation - energy relief with timing slack from pipelining - research of some great benefits of utilizing a number of provide and threshold voltages - Placement suggestions for a number of offer voltages - Verification for a number of voltage domain names - enhanced algorithms for gate sizing, and task of offer and threshold voltages - energy gating layout automation to minimize leakage - Relationships between tatistical timing, strength research, and parametric yield optimization

Design examples illustrate that those options can enhance strength potency via to 3 times.

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Reductions in IPC can be caused by cache misses, waiting for data from another instruction that is executing, branch misprediction, and so forth. 5. The CPI is very application dependent, as some applications have more branches and other hazards. 87 for different benchmarks in the SPEC CINT2000 benchmark set. 84 [18]. 0GHz Pentium III with 10 pipeline stages [34], which corresponds to a 20% to 23% worse IPC. 82 for the seven stage Intel XScale [16]. 56 respectively. 7 [54]. The higher IPC for the five stage ARM810 and ARM9 pipelines was achieved by adding static branch prediction, single cycle load, single cycle store, and doubling the memory bandwidth [43].

The improvements with gate sizing and voltage scaling depend greatly on the steepness of the power-delay curves, which depend on the range of allowable supply and threshold voltages in the process technology and the range of gate sizes in the library. Pipeline model parameters can be estimated from the particular microarchitecture being considered for a design. For good estimates, the dynamic and leakage power with gate sizing and/or voltage scaling must be fit over a range of delay targets for representative circuit benchmarks in the target process technology for a design.

The growth of glitching with logic depth depends on a number of factors. Glitches from a gate’s output may propagate through the fanout logic gates. The glitch may not propagate if it is not the controlling input of a fanout gate. If the delay of paths through the logic are unbalanced, there is more glitching [44]. Some functional blocks have more glitching than others. For example, in an inverse discrete cosine transform (IDCT) core about 37% of the power consumption in the accumulators was due to glitches, whereas glitches accounted for only 14% of the power for the chip as a whole [102].

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