By Dina Zisserman-Brodsky
Dissident ethnic networks have been an important self sufficient establishment within the Soviet Union. Voicing the discontent and resentment of the outer edge on the rules of the heart or metropole, the dissident writings, often called samizdat highlighted anger at deprivations imposed within the political, cultural, social, and monetary spheres. Ethnic dissident writings drew on values either inner to the Soviet process and foreign as resources of legitimation; they met a divided response between Russians, with a few privileging the harmony of the Soviet Union and others sympathetic to the rhetoric of nationwide rights. This specialise in nationwide, instead of person rights, besides the appropriation of ethnonationalism by means of political elites, is helping clarify advancements because the fall of the Soviet Union, together with the superiority of authoritarian governments in newly autonomous states of the previous Soviet Union.
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Additional info for Constructing Ethnopolitics in the Soviet Union: Samizdat, Deprivation and the Rise of Ethnic Nationalism
In 1957, republic-based Councils of National Economy, answerable to the republican governments, were established in place of ministries. Leaders of republican governments were organized in the All-Union Council of Ministers and the republics enjoyed greater independence in economic, planning, and budgetary matters. The most powerful impetus underlying Khrushchev’s nationality policy seems to have been the creation of a homogeneous Soviet society. ”25 The Program indicated that the main focuses of Khrushchev’s policy were cultural-linguistic russification and internal migration.
Their messages were apparently regarded as an affirmation of their pro-Western/pro-European and anti-Soviet/anti-Communist orientations. ”38 Another Ukrainian activist, I. ”39 A Letter of Congratulations to the Leader of Solidarno´sc´, L. 40 A number of appeals by ethnic movements were addressed to the peoples and governments of countries otherwise considered among the “bitterest enemies” of the Soviet regime. An Open Letter to the Friends of Ukraine in China, published in 1984 in the Chronicle of the Ukrainian Catholic Church, announced the Ukrainians’ dissociation from the USSR’s policy concerning 42 ● Constructing Ethnopolitics in the Soviet Union China: “The Ukrainian people expresses its opposition to the campaign of hostility toward the Chinese people maintained by Moscow.
The post-Stalinist apparatus, however, has changed dramatically because, particularly since the early 1960s, its recruitment policy has changed. Since then, the apparatus has recruited their members not only on the basis of political criteria, but also on the basis of technical competence. The consequences of this have been considerable, especially at the periphery. This new technical elite tended increasingly to hold that decision-making should be a function of reality rather than of ideology.