By Peter Kappeler, Carel P. van Schaik

Cooperative habit has been one of many enigmas of evolutionary idea because the days of Charles Darwin. The contributions to this booklet research the numerous elements of cooperative habit in primates and people as a number of the world's prime specialists assessment and summarize the cutting-edge of theoretical and empirical stories of cooperation. This ebook is hence the 1st to bridge the space among parallel examine in primatology and reports of people. Comparative as this procedure is, it highlights either universal ideas and facets of human distinctiveness with appreciate to cooperative habit.

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New genetic analyses indicate that silverbacks in neighboring lowland gorilla groups are often closely related (Bradley et al. 2004). This pattern of relatedness may be linked to the relatively low levels of competition and aggression observed among male silverbacks from neighboring territories. Callitrichid groups typically contain one breeding female and one or more adult males (Dietz 2004). In one well-studied population of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) in Brazil, multiple adult males were present in groups about half of the time (Dietz 2004).

One or two males monopolize reproductive activity each year, so age-mates might be paternal relatives (Mitchell 1990, cited in Mitchell 1994). In red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus), the dominant male fathers the majority of infants (Kappeler & Wimmer 2002) and natal males often migrate together (Ostner & Kappeler 2004). Reproductive skew is high in black-capped capuchins and males sometimes disperse with natal kin (Izawa 1994, cited in Strier 2000, Jack & Fedigan 2002, 2004). Peer migration is also observed in vervet monkeys (Cheney 1983a, Cheney & Seyfarth 1983), several species of macaques (van Noordwijk & van Schaik 1985), ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), and sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi; Pusey & Packer 1987).

Males form close social bonds, and rarely behave aggressively to other males within their groups (Boinski 1994). Males cooperate in sexual inspections of females, intergroup encounters, and defense against predators. Males tend to form the closest bonds with age-mates. In these squirrel monkey groups, the dominant male monopolizes reproductive activity (Boinski 1987), so age-mates might be paternal kin. However, it is not known whether maternal or paternal kinship influences the quality of males’ social relationships.

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