By Mark Payne, Daniel Zovatto, Mercedes Mateo Díaz, Fernando Carrillo-Florez, Koldo Echebarria, Flavia Freidenberg, Edmundo Jarquin, Andres Allamand Zavala

The development of democracy in Latin the US during the last zone century has contributed considerably to making sure recognize for basic political freedoms, civil liberties, and human rights. Democracies in improvement highlights how a good democracy can also be crucial for sustainable fiscal and social improvement. The booklet analyzes the consequences of associations at the functioning of democratic structures, identifies neighborhood tendencies in political reform, assesses the price of reforms in contributing to more advantageous democratic governance, and provides conclusions concerning the varieties of reforms that could carry promise for strengthening democracy. Appendices within the book's accompanying CD-ROM define the institutional make-up of the region's democratic structures, learn voter turnout in presidential and legislative elections from 1978 to 2004, and current election effects over an identical interval.

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Additional resources for Democracies in Development: Politics and Reform in Latin America, Revised Edition (Economic and Social Progress in Latin America, Annual Report)

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In Mexico, the term of deputies in the lower house is three years so that one of the elections for the whole body is simultaneous with the presidential election, but a second election for the whole legislature is held at the midway point of the six-year presidential term. In the remaining four countries (Colombia, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, and Venezuela), presidential and legislative elections rarely or never occur on the same day. Colombia is unusual among these five because the elections for the two branches occur in the same year in four-year cycles, but the legislative elections are held two-and-a-half months prior to the first round of the presidential elections.

The six countries where the timing of elections has been changed during the study period do not represent an obvious regional trend in the simultaneity of elections for the two branches. Chile, the Dominican Republic, and Venezuela shifted from systems with either fully or partially simultaneous elections (Chile) to ones with non-coterminous cycles. Then, in 2005, Chile moved back to simultaneous presidential and legislative elections while reducing the president’s term from six to four years. Brazil also moved from nonconcurrent elections toward concurrent ones.

If this figure was not reached, the congress was to decide among the two top finishers. As it turned out, Fernando Belaúnde Terry received 45 percent of the vote and became president. 24 Democracies in Development Copyright © by the Inter-American Development Bank. All rights reserved. 3. 13 (continued) The Effects of Presidential Election Systems on Democratic Governability 25 Copyright © by the Inter-American Development Bank. All rights reserved. org/pub lowered the threshold for election in the first round, made the majority system resemble a plurality system.

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