By Inigo Gutierrez, Juan Meléndez, Erik Hernández
Varactors are passive semiconductor units utilized in digital circuits, as a voltage-controlled means of storing strength so as to strengthen the volume of electrical cost produced. some time past, using reasonably cheap fabrication methods similar to complementary steel oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and silicon germanium (SiGe) have been stored for built-in circuits operating in frequency levels less than the GHz. Now, the elevated operating frequency of radio frequency built-in circuits (RF ICs) for communique units, and the rage of system-on-chip know-how, has driven the necessities of varactors to the restrict. because the frequency of RF functions maintains to upward thrust, it's crucial that passive units resembling varactors are of optimal caliber, making this a serious layout factor.
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Additional info for Design and Characterization of Integrated Varactors for RF Applications
15 Variation in Q in accordance with the size of the varactor. 6 mm). 16 shows the variation in capacitance with the bias voltage. Owing to the reduction of the coupling between tracks, there is a slight reduction of capacitance with the distance between islands, but the value is so insigniﬁcant that it cannot be separated from the uncertainty corresponding to the measurement equipment. 16 Inﬂuence of the distance between islands. 17 Effect of the buried layer on a PN-junction varactor. zone does not increase.
The main contribution to the loss is the signal travelling through the N well, where the main carriers are electrons, which are more mobile than the defect electrons. Consequently, this type has a relatively high quality factor. 5 (b)), which is based on the variation of the capacitance associated with the depletion zone that appears between the diffusion Nþ and the substrate P. In this case, the main contribution to the loss is the signal travelling through the substrate P, where the main carriers are defect electrons.
Accordingly, the capacitance increases but the resistance decreases. Therefore, the quality factor remains constant. The quality factor data are given for a bias voltage of 0 V. 2 Inﬂuence of the Varactor Gate Length on its Performance Together with its width, the length of the gate is one of the most important geometric parameters in an NMOS varactor. 4 mm). 17 Inﬂuence of the gate length with the bias voltage. 47 INFLUENCE OF GEOMETRIC PARAMETERS shows the variation in capacitance with the bias voltage of these three varactors.