By Wolfgang Maichen

As many circuits and purposes now input the Gigahertz frequency variety, exact electronic timing measurements became the most important within the layout, verification, characterization, and alertness of digital circuits. to achieve success during this endeavour, an engineer wishes an information base masking instrumentation, size recommendations, sign integrity, jitter and timing innovations, and records. quite often even the main skilled electronic try engineers, whereas gaining knowledge of a few of these topics, lack systematic wisdom or adventure within the excessive pace sign area.Digital Timing Measurements supplies a compact, practice-oriented evaluation on all these topics. The emphasis is on useable strategies and real-life guidance that may be effectively placed into perform, with references to the underlying mathematical concept. It unites in a single position various details suitable to excessive pace checking out, dimension, sign constancy, and instrumentation.

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E. doubling the cable length doubles the rise time and cuts the bandwidth in two) and thus less dramatic than for skin effect, but still significant. 4 Radiation and Induction Losses Any conductor carrying high-frequency signals inevitable acts as an antenna that emits part of the signal into free space. A second loss mechanism is induction into nearby conductors, which also carries away energy from the signal. e. they will degrade the signal shape. But while very important for EMI (electromagnetic interference) compliance, radiation and induction losses only have negligible effect on the signal integrity in usual cables and transmission paths, even for frequencies as high as 10 GHz.

Thus what becomes important is less the total line capacitance C tot or inductance L tot but rather their incremental values CU and LU per unit length. (As we will see shortly, the choice of what is the unit length – meters, inches, etc. – is actually irrelevant for our theory). Ctot and Ltot is what a lowfrequency LCR-meter would measure12 (as long as its frequency is so low 12 To measure the Ctot, the line would have to be be open at the end. To measure the Ltot, the line would have to be shorted at the end.

The insulator between signal conductor and return conductor (center conductor and shield in the case of a coaxial cable) consists of molecular dipoles. ) picture, those dipoles have to “turn around” whenever the polarity of the applied field changes. 21 Even this simplistic picture predicts correctly that dielectric loss increases approximately linearly with frequency, so it, too, distorts signal edges. The amount of dielectric loss per unit length in a given material at a specific frequency is a constant.

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