By Wolfgang Maichen

As many circuits and functions now input the Gigahertz frequency variety, actual electronic timing measurements became the most important within the layout, verification, characterization, and alertness of digital circuits.

To be triumphant during this box an engineer must comprehend instrumentation, size concepts, sign integrity, jitter and timing techniques, and data. This booklet provides a compact, practice-oriented evaluation on a lot of these matters with emphasis on useable innovations and real-life guidelines.

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Extra info for Digital Timing Measurements: From Scopes and Probes to Timing and Jitter (Frontiers in Electronic Testing)

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Third, routing both lines close together automatically means their propagation times will be well matched, so the differential signal integrity at the receiver is conserved. Fourth, since crosstalk (coupling) between the two lines is of no concern, routing the lines close together conserves board space, allowing either for smaller boards or less layers, thus decreasing board cost and/or size. In summary, we see that close coupling is merely a side effect of other 23 To be precise, this simplification is only possible for symmetric differential pairs, but this is what one encounters 99% of the time anyway.

A big advantage – not offered by any other differential termination scheme presented here – is that channels terminated this way can be used either in singled ended or in differential mode, greatly improving the flexibility of an automated test platform. On the other end of the complexity spectrum is the simple bridged termination (Figure 19(d)), which consists of just a single resistor between the two lines, matched to the differential impedance. It provides full termination for the differential signal component, but none whatsoever for the common component.

We really have to regard every section of our signal path as a transmission line. 16 A good example is a connector where the design was not done very accurately, so the shield does not keep constant distance from the center conductor and as a result the whole assembly has too little capacitance (or too much inductance, for that matter). If the deviation extends only over a length (propagation time) smaller than a fraction of the rise time of the signal traveling down the line, then it is unnecessary to apply the full-fledged transmission line picture.

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