By Milton Friend, USGS

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50 This concept has been selectively applied for monitoring arboviruses, influenza, and some other diseases. For example, virus activity in birds has been the most sensitive index for the presence of West Nile virus. A greater focus on monitoring wildlife diseases may be especially valuable for protecting human health in natural areas with expanded human presence and for protecting economic interests associated with the domestic animal industry. Wildlife and Zoonoses Contact with wildlife, including animals being handled, animal bites, and the consumption of animals, all provide opportunities for the direct transmission of zoonoses.

358 • Training workshops, protocols for diagnostic and surveillance activities, and data management are some of the integrated efforts established to combat WNV. Many agencies are incurring substantial costs for the surveillance and testing programs needed for guiding actions to protect human health. In addition, because of the risks to human health, mosquito abatement activities have increased, as well as the level of protective measures required for processing wildlife in disease diagnostic laboratories.

Plague). 1). Infectious disease has been the human health focus for disease emergence and reemergence and is the primary orientation here. That is, the focus is on organisms that invade live hosts in a manner that generally involves multiplication of the organism within the host as a prerequisite for an outcome of disease. , pesticides) that may be acquired from the consumption of food items and allergic responses are, in general, not addressed here. However, diseases caused by biotoxins (natural toxins) are noted for circumstances of special concern.

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