By Erik Kissa

Explaining rules crucial for the translation of information and realizing the true which means of the outcome, this paintings describes carious equipment and strategies used to symbolize dispersions and degree their actual and chemical houses. It describes quite a few dispersions containing debris starting from submicron sizes to aggregates and from difficult debris to polymer latices.

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Dispersions : characterization, testing, and measurement

Explaining rules crucial for the translation of information and figuring out the true which means of the end result, this paintings describes carious tools and strategies used to represent dispersions and degree their actual and chemical houses. It describes numerous dispersions containing debris starting from submicron sizes to aggregates and from demanding debris to polymer latices.

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3 COORDINATION POLYMERIZATION Coordination polymerization is also called stereospecific or stereoregular polymerization. The essential feature is a directing force to a growing chain end. Coordination polymerization is carried out using a catalyst called the Ziegler– Natta catalyst. Typical Ziegler–Natta catalysts are transition metal halides, such as TiX4 , TiX3 , VX4 , VX3 , VOX3 , Co, and Ni complexes, and organometallic compounds, such as AlR3 , AlR2 X, ZnR2 , and LiR. It is generally believed that the following oxidation–reduction reaction is responsible for chain growth: TiCl3 þ ðCH3 CH2 Þ3 Al !

Precipitation polymerization—using solvent (such as methanol) to precipitate out the polymer 4. Suspension polymerization—adding an initiator to the suspension in aqueous solution 5. 3 Some Well-Known Overall Reactions of Addition Polymersy The following are the overall reactions for the synthesis of typical (also well-known in our daily life) polymers. All of them undergo the mechanism of addition polymerization. O2, heat, pressure nCH2 CH2 Ethylene CH2CH2 CH2CH2 CH2CH2 CH2 CH2 n Polyethylene (plastic materials—films, housewares) y Since 1994 plastics have been heavily used in the building and construction industry and have been competing with traditional stalwarts such as concrete, wood, steel, and glass.

Styrene–butadiene copolymer, polybutadiene, ethylene–propylene copolymer). 2 Biological Polymers Biological polymers are composed of amino acids, nucleotides, or sugars. Here we describe three types of biological polymers: proteins and polypeptides, nucleic acids, and polymers of sugars. Proteins and Polypeptides Amino acids are bound by a peptide bond which is an amide linkage between the amino group of one molecule and the carboxyl group of another. 1). A protein with catalytic activities is called an enzyme.

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