By Paul M. Kennedy
First released in 1976, this publication is the 1st distinct exam of the background of British sea strength considering the fact that A.T. Mahan's vintage The impact of Sea energy on historical past, released in 1890. In interpreting the explanations for the increase and fall of serious Britain as a major maritime state within the interval from the Tudors to the current day, Professor Kennedy units the Royal military inside of a framework of nationwide, foreign, fiscal, political and strategical concerns.
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8 cables installed on the loading arm shall be for intrinsically safe circuits only and comply with the certification requirements with regard to limiting cable parameters. 9 flexible cables shall be installed on the articulated sections of the loading arms. V light and shall maintain flexibility with the temperature rang specified in the service conditions and shall be corrosion resistant. 1 each of the following tests, test procedures, test liquid quality, measuring equipment and acceptance criteria shall be submitted to the owner for written approval before testing commences.
1 Hz and a pressure of 10 bar (g)(145 psia). Or the specified operating pressure if higher. The duration of this test shall 30 minutes. 5 Pct shall be maintained if internal pressure is lost by increasing other test loads accordingly. Pct=TlfxPca Where Pct=test load Tlf=test load factor Pca=combined swivel design load , ref. 5 or 4 Acceptance criteria: a. at test 1 brinelling shall be within acceptable levels, ref. 6(a) b. at test 2 there shall be no leakage , ref. 6 (b). c. at test 4 there shall not be any structural failure, ref.
Loading arms shall be tested and together in specified combinations. d. : 405 and 406. Unless specified otherwise by the owner, operating and maintenance procedures shall be produced in the English language, and shall include, but not be limited to, the following: general safety procedures to be observed during operation of the loading arm systems; preparations and checks to be made on the jetty before the tanker berths and onboard the tanker before connection of the loading arms; loading arm reference and composite envelopes with alarm positions; loading arm connection, manoeuvring and disconnection procedures; loading arm cool down procedures for use with low temperature and cryogenic products; control of the loading arms system during product transfer operations; emergency disconnection procedures; vessel and environmental operating and design limits; manifold connection criteria; simultaneous loading criteria; adjustment procedures; settings for pressure relief valves; as built drawings; and schedules and instructions for routine maintenance tasks and minor replacement and repairs which can be performed by operator.