By Dimitar Bechev, Kalypso Nicolaidis

The id of any countryside is inextricably associated with its borders and frontiers. Borders attach countries and maintain notions of social harmony. but also they are the websites of department, fragmentation and political clash. This bold research encompasses North Africa, the center East, and South and South East Europe to ascertain the emergence of kingdom borders and polarised identities within the Mediterranean. The authors examine the impression of political obstacles upon the area, besides pressures from ecu and fiscal integration, the resurgence of nationalism, and refugee and defense matters. The authors discover the politics of reminiscence, and ask no matter if echoes from the imperial prior -- Ottoman and colonial -- may provide the foundation for clash answer, region-building and financial integration.

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Extra info for Mediterranean Frontiers: Borders, Conflict and Memory in a Transnational World (Library of International Relations)

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44 Until 1915, the nominal presence of the Ottoman Empire in the Levant mitigated the humiliation of direct colonial domination experienced elsewhere. This façade of relative independence, however, broke down with the Ottoman defeat in the First World War, and with the establishment of mandate states in Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Transjordan and Palestine. Britain and French imperial administrations made further inroads into what was by then called the Middle East. Unlike in the Maghreb, however, the societies in the Levant were not subjected to settler colonialism.

These have pulled them away from the seascapes and maritime networks on which they once thrived, and have re-oriented them towards national, new regional, or in the case of the Maghreb, ‘post-colonial’ markets. Mediterraneanism, above all, has been a problematic concept, whether in Herzfeld’s 34 MEDITERRANEAN FRONTIERS term as an ‘Orientalizing’ and ‘colonizing’ discourse, or as an escapist, Europeanizing imagery to be found in Israel, Turkey and the Maghreb littoral. In spite of resilient arguments on primeval unity, and in spite of Sarkozy’s Discours de Toulon, there is no primeval Mediterranean essence of unity, deposited in a distant past and waiting for redemption.

So, is the discussion really only about discourse and colonial constructions of space? Does the ‘appeal to unity’ obfuscate other political agendas and suggest equality where in fact there is only asymmetry and dependence? Spaces of empire, scholarship and identity: Discursive constructions of the Mediterranean The nineteenth-century English writer Alexander William Kinglake begins his travelogue on the Ottoman Empire at its western border. ’5 Kinglake re-instated the theme of the seminal divide between the Roman Christian Orbis terrarum and the Dar al-sulh, the abode of the Pax Islamica.

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